Story of molecular diagnosisStory of STIs Diagnosis
(Sexually Transmitted Infection)

Is screening for pathogens causing STI
(Sexually Transmitted Infection) necessary? Many people are unaware of STI infection since the symptoms
can often be subclinical or mild.

The causative organisms of STIs are rarely naturally cleared, and asymptomatic cases actually represent 70-80% of all STIs. If left untreated during the early stages of infection, they can cause vaginitis, cervicitis, urethritis, and cervical cancer in women as well as serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, premature birth, miscarriage, and infertility. Especially for pregnant woman, STIs can pose a threat not only on the health of the mother but also on fetal health.

Is Molecular Diagnostic Testing necessary to diagnose STIs? Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)
are among the most common infectious diseases in
adults, generally acquired through sexual contact.
About 50% of adults acquire STIs, but 70-80% of
people with STIs show no particular symptoms.

STIs are caused by more than 30 different bacteria, viruses and
parasites. However, there are not many testing options for
detecting STI pathogens besides general routine checkups,
blood tests or urine tests, all of which provide limited
information on the infection.

Seegene’s STI molecular diagnostics provides fast and highly
accurate test results on sexually transmitted bacterial infections,
even identifying multiple co-infections. Patients can also monitor
the infection status for each of the pathogens, resulting in very
effective follow-up management.

Major STI- causing bacteria

Chlamydia is one of the most common pathogen, causing vaginitis, dysuria, and frequent urination. It is sometimes asymptomatic, but can cause serious urethritis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease after the asymptomatic latent period has lapsed.
Trichomonas is causes vaginitis with yellow-green vaginal discharge, discomfort during intercourse, painful urination, and bleeding. It increases the risk of premature birth for pregnant women. If left untreated, it can also increase the risk of infection from other bacteria.
80% of affected women has no or mild symptoms, but if left untreated, gonorrhea can cause complication illnesses such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy by causing pelvic inflammatory disease. Furthermore Infection during pregnancy can also cause meningitis or an eye infection of the fetus, as well as increasing the risk of premature birth, premature rupture of membranes, or stillbirth.
Mycoplasma causes urethritis, vaginitis, endometritis, and pelvic inflammatory disease, And in pregnant women, it can also lead to fetal death, premature birth, and habitual miscarriage. If left untreated until gives a birth, the newborn can be infected while passing through the birth canal and it increases the risk of conjunctivitis or otitis media.
Ureaplasma causes nongonococcal urethritis, passed through sexual intercourse, commonly causing urethritis or prostatitis in men as well.

Could I be simultaneously infected with
multiple pathogens?
And is multiplex test necessary?

Many patients with STIs are infected with multiple pathogens. The
data from Chung-Ang University Hospital shows that more than
38.9% of STIs patients are infected with 2 or more types of
bacteria. Identifying all pathogen types of multiple
bacterial infections require individual examination for
diagnosis of each pathogen which takes time and cost for both
patients and doctors.

Moreover, each STI requires different antibiotics, depending on the
infected pathogen. Thus accurate information of each of the
infected pathogens permits the use of appropriate and effective
antibiotic therapy and treatment.

What are the benefits of Molecular Diagnostics?

Many STIs shows only mild or no symptoms at all, and there are fastidious bacteria that are difficult to identify with conventional methods such as cell culture. In these cases, molecular diagnostics using PCR technology is a very effective method directly targeting the infected DNA. PCR method is actually used to confirm diagnosis results using other methods, since it generates accurate and reliable test results even with extremely small volume of DNA samples.

Molecular diagnostics not only detect the exact pathogen of STI infections, but it also can also diagnose multiple infections with a single test. Moreover, it provides quantification information of your STI infections into three levels, which is helpful when prescribing the right dosage in the right antibiotic.

Where can I get Molecular Diagnostics tests?

Most of large hospitals and university hospitals offer the tests. Private clinics that have the system connected to molecular diagnostics test centers also offer the service. Molecular diagnostics are currently being used for diagnosis of a variety of infectious illnesses. Contact your doctor before selecting the most suitable molecular diagnostics for you.

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